MapReduce has for a long time, been the most popular infrastructure and programming model for doing paralleling distribution in computing on server clusters. Of late, Google is using Big Data infrastructure platform of the hyper scale analytic system to do web hosting
The Google file system serves as a the foundation of google’s cloud computing services. It is optimized for storing very large files because google applications typically manipulate files of this size. One way google implements this optimization is by changing the smallest unit of allocated storage in the file system from the 8kb block size to 64mb. Using the 64MB results in a much higher performance for larger files at the expense of very inefficient storage utilization for files that are substantially smaller than 64MB.
How MapReduce Works
MapReduce is built on top of the google file system (GFS) and it is the heart of the computational model for their approach to cloud computing services. The basic idea behind the google computational model is that a software developer writes a program containing two simple functions – map and reduce processing a collection of data. Google underlying runtime system, then divides the program into many small tasks, which are run on hundreds or thousands of hosts in the cloud. The run time system also ensures that the correct subset of data is delivered to each task.
The MapReduce was dropped in favor of the new technology of hyper-scale analytic system because it was said to be cumbersome once it reached a few petabytes. Though the new technology is a bit expensive, the cost can be reduced if Hostgater coupons are used to get a discounted rate when purchasing or building VPS hosting, domain registration and getting dedicated servers for your company. These coupons can be used when doing purchases at Hostgator.com to work on your web hosting program.
Cloud Computing Service Architecture
There are two sections on cloud computing architecture; the front end and the back end. On the back end of the system are the various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the cloud of computing services. In theory, a cloud computing system could include practically any computer program that you can imagine, from data processing to video games. Each application will have its own dedicated server. The front end includes the client’s computer, or computer network and the application required to access the cloud computing services. Services like web based email programs leverage existing web browsers like internet explorer or Firefox. Other systems have unique applications that provide network access to clients.
Cloud Computing Service Applications
The applications of cloud computing are practically limitless. With the right middleware, a cloud computing system could execute all the programs a normal computer could run. Potentially, everything from generic word processing software for customized computer programs designed for a specific company could work on a cloud computing system. Having cloud computing services makes clients to be able to access their applications and data from anywhere at any time. It also brings hardware costs down. And for corporations that rely on computers, they will be assured that the cloud computing will provide them with the right software all the time in order to achieve their goal.
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- SaaS is offered to a client as a service on demand. Only a single instant of the service runs on the cloud and causes multiple end users to be serviced. It is advantageous to the end users as they do not need to invest in servers or software licenses thus making it cost effective. Examples of companies using SaaS include, but is not limited to: Google, Salesforce, Microsoft.
- Paas is offered on cloud computing through a layer of software. It can as well be developed in an environment which is then encapsulated, then later on offered to clients as a higher service. Here,the customer has the freedom to build own applications running on the provider’s infrastructure. Examples of Paas LAMP platform, restricted J2EE, Google’s App Engine, Force.com.
- IaaS provides basic storage and computing capabilities as standardized services over the network. In order to handle the workload, networks and servers are pulled and made to be available to handle it. A customer on this cloud computing platform is at liberty to deploy own software on the infrastructure. Examples of IaaS include the famous Amazon, GoGrid and 3 Tera
Benefits of Using Cloud Computing
Reduced cost, increased storage, and flexibility, are some of the endless benefits which one stands to benefit when using cloud computing. Pay as per usage billing model and the shared infrastructure makes this technological method to be cost effective. Initial and recurring expenses are manageable. Large volumes of data can be managed and stored through this method through the dynamic scaling. Changing business conditions, and need for high speed to deliver is a feature in this technological method that is just wonderful.
Challenges Faced in Cloud Computing
Every service or goods in the market have their own pros and cons thus cloud computing is not left behind on this. Some of the challenges faced by this method include, but is not limited to:
- Data Protection In Cloud Computing
Some businesses and individuals are reluctant to use cloud computing as they fear losing their data to competitors through the sharing of information on this platform. They might lose important information to a rival thus putting them out of business. In most cases, the actual storage of the information is not revealed to the client thus adding to the anxiety
- Data Recovery and Availability in Cloud Computing
In most organizations, data recovery and availability is managed by management service agreements and runtime governance of applications through clustering and fail over; data replications; system monitoring; disaster recovery and capacity and performance management. In the case of cloud computing, there might be an underservice of the aforementioned thus causing severe damage to organizations.
- Management capabilities in Cloud Computing
Management platform and infrastructure is still being developed thus making cloud computing management to have challenges in this area.
- Regulatory and Compliance Restrictions in Cloud Computing
Some countries have regulations which don’t allow sharing of personal information outside the country, in such instances, the cloud service providers are forced to set up a data base within that particular country.
Some enterprises are not fully equipped to use cloud computing because, in order to utilize the use of this technology, an individual or enterprise has to have an interface between service suppliers and multiple group service consumers.